Universitat de Barcelona

Università di Bologna


Private Ordering of Online Platforms in Smart Urban Mobility: The Case of Uber’s Rating System – Rossana Ducato

Rating and review systems are a self-regulatory mechanism widely used by online platforms, especially in the smart mobility sector. Such systems have already been analysed in empirical studies and legal contributions, in particular in the fields of consumer law, labour law and competition law.

This chapter aims to make an original contribution to the current debate from a relatively underinvestigated perspective: how rating and review systems interact with the European data protection framework. As a case study, the chapter will focus on the rating system adopted by Uber, one of the largest shared mobility platforms worldwide.

Università degli Studi di Palermo

Universitat de València

Algorithms as Legal Norms. About Extending Traditional Legal Safeguards for Regulations Enacted by Public Administrations to the Algorithms used by Public Administrations for the Adoption of Administrative Decisions – Andrés Boix Palop

In this paper, it is argued that the algorithms used by the Public Administrations for the effective adoption of decisions must be considered administrative regulations from a legal point of view because they fulfil a function which is strictly equivalent to that of legal norms, i.e. to regulate and predetermine the action of the public powers. Additionally, it is studied which consequences can be deduced from this assumption in many areas: better regulation procedures for algorithms, complete publication of their code as it is legally binding for every norm and the necessity of legal remedies against algorithms. All these consequences, as stated in the text, represent a significant and necessary increase in relation with the current guarantees existing in our legal system.